How To Use Applicatives For Validation In Scala And Save Much Work

In this post we will see how applicatives can be used for validation in Scala. It is an elegant approach. Especially when compared to an object-oriented way.

Usually when we have operations that can fail, we have them return types like Option or Try. We sequence operations and once there is an error the computation is short circuited and the result is a None or a Failure.

Applicatives allow us to compose independent operations and evaluate each one. Even if an intermediate evaluation fails. This allows us to collect error messages instead of returning only the first error that occurred.

A classic example where this is useful is the validation of user input. We would like to return a list of all invalid inputs rather than aborting the evaluation after the first error.

Scala Cats provides a type that does exactly that. So let’s dive into some code and see how it works.

The user type

The complete code of this article is compiled with tut to make sure it is complete and works.

We use Cats version 1.0.1 and the sbt plugin kind projector version 0.9.4.

We are going to need some imports:

import cats._
// import cats._

// import

import cats.implicits._
// import cats.implicits._

Now we define the type User:

final case class User(
  name: String,
  age: Int,
  email: String
// defined class User

An abstract user validator

Next we will define an abstract user validator.

We will only say that the validate function returns a user, wrapped into the abstract type F.

This has some benefits. Since it is often an important design choice which wrapper type to choose for F we defer this decision as long as possible.

Additionally it allows us to use different interpreters in different contexts, say one for testing and one for production.

trait UserValidator[F[_]] {
  def createValidUser(name: String, age: Int, email: String): F[User]

object UserValidator {
  def apply[F[_]](implicit ev: UserValidator[F]): UserValidator[F] = ev

  def validate[F[_]: UserValidator, E](name: String,
                                       age: Int,
                                       email: String): F[User] =
    UserValidator[F].createValidUser(name, age, email)

An Id interpreter

At this point we can already implement a simple Id interpreter that does no validation at all. It just constructs a user instance and returns it.

val userValidatorIdInterpreter = new UserValidator[Id] {
  def createValidUser(name: String, age: Int, email: String): Id[User] =
    User(name, age, email)
// userValidatorIdInterpreter: UserValidator[cats.Id] = $anon$1@49cfb62b

If we want to call the validate function, we have to have an implicit instance of UserValidator[F] in the scope.

implicit val userValidatorInterpreter = userValidatorIdInterpreter
// userValidatorInterpreter: UserValidator[cats.Id] = $anon$1@49cfb62b

println(UserValidator.validate("John", 25, ""))
// User(John,25,

println(UserValidator.validate("John", 25, "johnn@example"))
// User(John,25,johnn@example)

println(UserValidator.validate("John", -1, "john@gexample"))
// User(John,-1,john@gexample)

println(UserValidator.validate(".John", -1, "john@gexample"))
// User(.John,-1,john@gexample)

Ok, let’s now look at how applicatives can help us with real validation and error handling.

How applicatives work

Applicative is a type class that can be mapped over. And is has two operations called pure and ap.

pure is just a constructor that lifts values into an Applicative.

ap or the infix version <*> applies a value to a function, where both the value and the function are wrapped inside the same Applicative type.

So if F is the type of our Applicative we can apply F[A] to an F[A => B] to get an F[B]. It works just like normal function application, only that everything happens inside the F.

Note that the type B in F[A => B] can also be a function. Therefore we can continue to apply values to our F until we are left with a final result.

Here is an example of how to apply values of type A, B, and C to the function A => B => C => D to get a D at the end:

F[A => (B => (C => D))] <*> F[A] = F[B => (C => D)]

F[B => (C => D)]        <*> F[B] = F[C => D]

F[C => D]               <*> F[C] = F[D]

The parentheses are for clarification and can be omitted. Note that the function inside the F has to be curried.

We can also write this in one line:

F[A => B => C => D] <*> F[A] <*> F[B] <*> F[C] = F[D]

With these semantics it is possible to implement an instance for F that encapsulates conditional logic that we can use for error handling and validation.

Fortunately we do not have to implement such instances ourselves. They are already provided by Scala Cats.

In fact every monad instance such as Option or List e.g. has also an Applicative instance.

Here is an example with Option:

def add(a: Int, b: Int) = a + b
// add: (a: Int, b: Int)Int

((add _).curried).pure[Option] <*> Option(2) <*> Option(5)
// res5: Option[Int] = Some(7)

The validation logic

Because we still do not want to commit to an applicative instance too early we are going to implement the validation logic in an abstract way.

Regardless of what type we are going to use for validation later we only want to implement the validation logic once.

To do that, however, we have to have at least one constraint for our abstract type F: It has to have an instance of ApplicativeError. Which is a special kind of applicative. It has an additional error type and additional operations. Of which we are only going to need raiseError.

The error type

First we create a custom error type for the user validation:

sealed trait UserValidationError
// defined trait UserValidationError

case object NameNotValid extends UserValidationError
// defined object NameNotValid

case object AgeOutOfRange extends UserValidationError
// defined object AgeOutOfRange

case object EmailNotValid extends UserValidationError
// defined object EmailNotValid

The error constructor

The applicative instances from Cats have different error types. Some have Throwable or Unit. Others have generic error types. And yet others have generic error types with constraints.

Therefore we have to tell our generic validator how to construct an abstract error type from the concrete type that we just defined. We do this by passing a function UserValidationError => E to the UserValidator constructor.

The validation functions

Let’s implement functions to validate name, age, and email address. Each function returns either a valid value or an error wrapped into the abstract type F.

Here is how we could validate the email address e.g.:

def validateEmail(email: String): F[String] =
  if (email.matches("^[a-zA-Z0-9._%+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9.-]+\\.[a-zA-Z]{2,}$"))
  else A.raiseError(mkError(EmailNotValid))

Combining validations

Finally we will combine the validated name, age, and email address with applicative composition.

After lifting the User.apply function into the Applicative we can just apply the validated values:

def createValidUser(name: String, age: Int, email: String): F[User] = {
  (User.apply _).curried.pure[F] <*> validateName(name) <*>
    validateAge(age) <*> validateEmail(email)

Here is the complete generic user validator:

def userValidator[F[_], E](mkError: UserValidationError => E)(
    implicit A: ApplicativeError[F, E]): UserValidator[F] =
  new UserValidator[F] {

    def validateName(name: String): F[String] =
      if (name.matches("(?i:^[a-z][a-z ,.'-]*$)")) name.pure[F]
      else A.raiseError(mkError(NameNotValid))

    def validateAge(age: Int): F[Int] =
      if (age >= 18 && age < 120) age.pure[F]
      else A.raiseError(mkError(AgeOutOfRange))

    def validateEmail(email: String): F[String] =
      if (email.matches("^[a-zA-Z0-9._%+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9.-]+\\.[a-zA-Z]{2,}$"))
      else A.raiseError(mkError(EmailNotValid))

    def createValidUser(name: String, age: Int, email: String): F[User] = {
      (User.apply _).curried.pure[F] <*> validateName(name) <*>
        validateAge(age) <*> validateEmail(email)
// userValidator: [F[_], E](mkError: UserValidationError => E)(implicit A: cats.ApplicativeError[F,E])UserValidator[F]


Now it’s quite easy to create concrete UserValidator instances. We have to provide the target type, the error type and the error constructor function.

The concrete UserValidator instances

Here are some examples for Option, Try and Either.

(To make the code more concise we use the kind projector plugin.)

import scala.util.Try
// import scala.util.Try

val userValidatorOptionInterpreter =
  userValidator[Option, Unit](_ => ())
// userValidatorOptionInterpreter: UserValidator[Option] = $anon$1@7e284fb6

val userValidatorTryInterpreter =
  userValidator[Try, Throwable](err => new Throwable(err.toString))
// userValidatorTryInterpreter: UserValidator[scala.util.Try] = $anon$1@42f4b47b

val userValidatorEitherInterpreter =
  userValidator[Either[UserValidationError, ?], UserValidationError](identity)
// userValidatorEitherInterpreter: UserValidator[[β$0$]scala.util.Either[UserValidationError,β$0$]] = $anon$1@3ca91abe

Doing some validation

Let’s bring an implicit validator into scope and try different inputs:

implicit val userValidatorInterpreter = userValidatorTryInterpreter
// userValidatorInterpreter: UserValidator[scala.util.Try] = $anon$1@42f4b47b

println(UserValidator.validate("John", 25, ""))
// Success(User(John,25,

println(UserValidator.validate("John", 25, "johnn@example"))
// Failure(java.lang.Throwable: EmailNotValid)

println(UserValidator.validate("John", -1, "john@gexample"))
// Failure(java.lang.Throwable: AgeOutOfRange)

println(UserValidator.validate(".John", -1, "john@gexample"))
// Failure(java.lang.Throwable: NameNotValid)

As we can see from the results, it works. Only error messages are not collected.

Collecting error messages

If we want to collect error messages we can use the type Validated from Cats.

val userValidatorValidatedInterpreter =
  userValidator[Validated[NonEmptyList[UserValidationError], ?],
                NonEmptyList[UserValidationError]](NonEmptyList(_, Nil))
// userValidatorValidatedInterpreter: UserValidator[[β$0$][[UserValidationError],β$0$]] = $anon$1@36f4fb60

implicit val userValidatorInterpreter = userValidatorValidatedInterpreter
// userValidatorInterpreter: UserValidator[[β$0$][[UserValidationError],β$0$]] = $anon$1@36f4fb60

println(UserValidator.validate("John", 25, ""))
// Valid(User(John,25,

println(UserValidator.validate("John", 25, "johnn@example"))
// Invalid(NonEmptyList(EmailNotValid))

println(UserValidator.validate("John", -1, "john@gexample"))
// Invalid(NonEmptyList(AgeOutOfRange, EmailNotValid))

println(UserValidator.validate(".John", -1, "john@gexample"))
// Invalid(NonEmptyList(NameNotValid, AgeOutOfRange, EmailNotValid))

The only constraint here is that the error type has to have a Semigroup instance. This holds e.g. for List or NonEmptyList. So as long as this holds (and the compiler will tell us) we don’t have to worry about this detail.


Let’s recap what we did:

  • We created a type class UserValidator that defined the algebra for creating valid User instances
  • This allowed us to implement a “fake” Id interpreter
  • Then we implemented the validation logic in a generic way. With the only constraint that the target type had to be an ApplicativeError
  • Then we were able to define UserValidator interpreters for Option, Try, Either or Validated. With almost no overhead. And Without duplicating any validation logic.
  • We did not commit to any target type
  • When changing the target type later, we can leave the application code untouched. We merely have to replace the implicit interpreter.

I think this is really cool. Also note that the code is purely functional. And we didn’t have to implement any low level logic for collecting messages. This is handled by the Validated type and just works.